Software Testing Career FAQs

software testing interview

Q1. Is software testing a good career?

Ans. Yes, software testing is one of the most sought-after careers. Software testing professionals are high in demand in software development companies. The scope of software testing is consistently increasing in the IT industry. Software testing is a promising career with good pay.

Q2. Can I learn software testing without IT experience?

Ans. If you have no IT experience, you can learn software testing through various online courses. Software testing tools are relatively easy to learn and once you get hands-on, you are ready to use them for any application

Q3. What are the skills required for a software testing job?

Ans. The software testing jobs require various skills like good testers are Knowledge and hands-on experience of Automation tools and a Test Management Tool; basic programming languages knowledge; basic knowledge of Database/SQL; and good logical thinking.

Q4. Which type of software testing is in demand?

Ans. The top software testing trends in 2021 are Agile and DevOps, Automation Testing, API and Services Test Automation, Cloud Migration Testing, Blockchain Testing, and Mobile Test Automation.

Q5. How long does it take to learn software testing?

Ans. If you are a beginner, it would take around 2 to 3 months to learn the basics of software testing. Mastering software testing may take even longer.

Q6. Can I learn software testing on my own?

Ans. Yes, you can learn software testing on your own. You can learn it if you are someone who wants to start a career in the IT industry or if you are someone who is curious to learn various testing tools.

Q7. Can I learn software testing online?

Ans. Yes, there are multiple online resources to learn software testing online like online courses, tutorials, and videos. Naukri Learning is a one-stop destination to explore the popular software testing online courses from top universities across the world. You can visit the Naukri Learning website, browse various software testing courses, and choose the course that suits your experience level.

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Q8. What does a software tester do?

Ans. Software testing professionals perform various tasks, such as designing test scenarios for software usability; conducting the testing, analyzing the results, and then submitting observations to the development team, interacting with clients to understand product requirements.

Q9. What educational background is required to become a software tester?

Ans. To become a software tester, you will need to have a Bachelor’s degree in Computer Science or a related field, knowledge of software test design and testing methodologies, knowledge of programming, excellent communication, and critical thinking skills.

Also, check Top Selenium interview Q&A

Q10. How much salary does a software tester earn?

Ans. The salary of a software tester varies from company to company. In India, the average starting salary of a software tester ranges from Rs. 3.5 Lakhs to Rs. 6 Lakhs.

Q11. What are the job roles available in the field of software testing?

Ans. Software testing job roles are QA Analyst/Trainee Tester, QA Analyst/Software Tester, QA Analyst, Software Test Engineer, Test Manager, and Senior Test Manager. From an entry-level role, one can move to senior test engineer, test lead to test manager roles, and even can become QA lead, QA Manager.

Software Testing FAQs

Once after coding is completed, Testers will start to test application by entering all possible inputs in order to find defects in software is called as, Software Testing.

Testing software or application repeatedly or again and again manually to find defects in software according to customer’s requirement is called as, Manual Testing.

Test Engineer will write code or program or script by using tools like UFT or Selenium and run the program against the application or software where program will automatically test application and gives result as Pass or Fail it is called as, Automation testing.

There are 2 main types of software testing such as,

  1. White Box Testing – Testing done by developer
  2. Black Box Testing – Testing done by tester

Most Important 50 Selenium Interview Questions and Answers

software testing interview

To prepare for your next interview on Selenium, here are some of the frequently-asked

Selenium interview questions (with answers) to help you prepare well.

Selenium is a suite of tools to automate web browsers across many platforms. It is a free, open-sourced application which caters to different testing requirements. This application also supports authoring of tests without having to learn a scripting language and provides a domain-specific language to writes tests in a number of popular programming language. It also runs on most of the modern browsers.

Due to the many advantages Selenium has to offer, it is one of popular testing frameworks and Selenium professionals are in great demand across the IT industry.

How many languages does Selenium support?

Ans. All major languages, including C#, Java, PHP, Ruby, Python.

What is automation testing?

Ans. Automation testing or Test Automation is a process of automating the manual process to test the application/system under test.

What are the different ways to find an element?

Ans. ID, Name, Tag, Attribute, CSS, Linktext, PartialLink Text, X-path

What are the testing types supported by Selenium?

Ans. Functional testing and regression testing

What is the difference between implicit wait and explicit wait in selenium WebDriver?

Ans. When an implicit wait is implemented in tests, if WebDriver cannot find an element in the Document Object Model (DOM), it will wait for a defined amount of time for the element to appear in the DOM.

An explicit wait can be used where synchronization is needed, for example the page is loaded but we are still waiting for a call to complete and an element to appear.

Which is better –implicit wait or explicit wait?

Ans. Explicit waits are better than implicit wait. Unlike an implicit wait, you can write custom code or conditions for wait before proceeding further in the code.

When should I use Selenium IDE?

Ans. Selenium IDE is the simplest of all the tools in the package and should be a great tool for naïve users as it is easy to learn with minimal acquaintances in programming language.

Explain the difference between single (/) and double slash (//) in X-path?

Ans. Single slash (/) allows the creation of ‘absolute’ path expressions, while double slash (//) allows the creation of ‘relative’ path expressions.

What is the use of X-path?

Ans. X-Path is used to find the WebElement in web pages. It is also useful in identifying the dynamic elements.

What is the difference between type keys and type commands?

Ans. Type key populates the value attribute using JavaScript whereas type commands emulate like actual user typing

What is the difference between verify and assert commands?

Ans. Assert command allows to check whether an element is on the page or not. Verify command checks whether the element is on the page, otherwise the test will carry on executing.

What is heightened privileges browsers?

Ans. Heightened privileges browsers are similar to Proxy Injection, allows websites to do something that are not commonly permitted.

Explain what is Data-driven framework and Keyword driven?

Ans. In Data-driven framework, the test data is separated and kept outside the Test Scripts, while test case logic resides in Test Scripts.

Keyword driven frameworks requires the development of data tables and keywords, independent of the test automation.

What is Object Repository?

Ans. Object repository is an essential entity in any UI automations which allows a tester to store all object that will be used in the scripts in one or more centralized locations rather than scattered all over the test scripts.

Also Read Automation Coding standards

Mention 5 different exceptions you had in Selenium WebDriver?

Ans. The 5 different exceptions in Selenium WebDriver are WebDriver Exception, NoAlertPresentException, NoSuchWindowException, NoSuchElementException, TimeoutException

Which web driver implementation is fastest?

Ans. HTMLUnit Driver implementation is fastest

selenium interview questions
Most Important 50 Selenium Interview Questions and Answers 1

How to find more than one web element in the list?

Ans. It can be done using WebElement List. E.g.

List <WebElement> elementList = driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”));

int listSize = elementList.size();

for (int i=0; i<listSize; i++)





What is the difference between driver.close() and driver.quit() command?

Ans. Close() method closes the web browser window that the user is currently working on or the browser that WebDriver is currently accessing.

Quit() method closes down all the windows that the program has opened.

In which format does source view shows your script in Selenium IDE?

Ans. XML

What is Object Repository? How can we create Object Repository in Selenium?

Ans. Object Repository is a term used to refer to the collection of web elements belonging to Application Under Test (AUT) along with their locator values.

In Selenium, objects can be stored in an excel sheet which can be populated inside the script whenever required.

What is Selenese and what are the types of Selenese ?

Ans. Selenese is a selenium set of command which are used for running the test.

There are three types of Selenese – Actions, Assertions and Accessors

How you can convert any Selenium IDE tests from Selenese to another language?

Ans. The format option of Selenium IDE to convert tests into another programming language

To generate pdf reports mention what Java API is required?

Ans. API IText

What are the ways you can customize TestNG report?’

Ans. You can customize TestNG report in two ways,

– Using ITestListener Interface

– Using IReporter Interface

In Selenium what are Breakpoints and Startpoints?

Ans. A breakpoint is implemented to stop an execution to check if the code is working as expected till now.

A startpoint indicates the point from where the execution should begin.

What is Selenium composed of?

Ans. Selenium is a suite of tools for automated web testing and it is composed of Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment), WebDriver and RC, and Grid.

Can you tell me from where the term Selenium derived?

Ans. Well, it came from a joke made by Jason Huggins (the developer of Selenium) in an email, where he mocked one of his competitors named Mercury, saying that you can cure mercury poisoning by taking selenium supplements. This is from where the other email recipients took the name and the rest is history.

Why should you use Selenium as a test tool?

Ans. Selenium is a free and open source tool, and has a large user base. It helps communities and is compatible with every browser (Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, etc.). Besides, it also has a great platform compatibility (Windows, Mac OS, Linux etc.)

What is Selenese?

Ans. Selenese is the language used to write test scripts in Selenium IDE.

How many programming languages does Selenium support?

Ans. Selenium supports multiple programming languages like Java, C#, Ruby, Python, Pearl, etc.

What are the different Selenium components?

Ans. Different components of Selenium are sets of tools, which include:

– Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE)

– Selenium Remote Control (RC)

– Selenium WebDriver

– Selenium Grid

Elaborate the functioning of Selenium Grid?

Ans. Selenium Grid sends tests to the hub, which are then redirected to Selenium Webdriver. It then launches the browser and runs the test. The tests run in parallel with entire test suite.

Can we use Selenium grid for performance testing?

Ans. Yes, but it is not as effective as Loadrunner, which is a dedicated Performance Testing tool.

Which testing types are supported by Selenium?

Ans. Selenium supports two types of testing:

1. Functional Testing

2. Regression Testing

Also Read Top interview questions for QA Manager/Test Lead

How will you find an element using Selenium?

Ans. Every object or control in a web page is an element in Selenium, and some of the ways to find that element in a web page include using ID, Name, Tag, Attribute, CSS, Linktext, PartialLink Text and Xpath.

Check Selenium News here

What is Page Object Model (POM)?

Ans. POM is a design pattern responsible for creating an Object Repository for web UI elements.

What is Page Factory?

Ans. Page Factory provides an optimized way to implement Page Object Model and it has a very good memory utilization and implementation is object-oriented.

What is an XPath?

Ans. XPath is a language which helps to locate and process items in Extensible Markup Language (XML) documents. It addresses syntax based on a path through the document’s logical structure or hierarchy. XPath is used to locate a web element based on its XML path. It also stores, organizes and transports arbitrary data.

What is the difference between “/” and “//” in Xpath?

Ans. “/” or Single Slash creates Xpath from the document node/start node.

“//” or Double Slash creates Xpath with relative path from anywhere within the document.

Which test types are supported by Selenium?

Ans. So, Selenium supports –

– Functional Testing

– Regression Testing

– Sanity Testing

– Smoke Testing

– Responsive Testing

– Cross Browser Testing

– UI testing (black box)

– Integration Testing

What is the difference between type keys and type commands?

Ans. Type Keys trigger JavaScript event but the Type Command don’t. Type key simulates each keystroke using JavaScript, while whereas Type Command emulates actual user typing.

What is the difference between verify and assert commands?

Ans. Assert command helps to check the availability of a certain element on the page. The test terminates at the point the check fails, i.e. if the element is unavailable.

Verify command also helps to check the availability of a certain element on the page, but here the test goes on as all the commands run is guaranteed even if the check fails.

Can Selenium handle windows based pop up?

Ans. Since it is an automation testing tool and supports only web application testing, it can’t handle windows pop up. However, third-party tools like AutoITm and Robot class are available to handle this.

How do we handle web-based pop up in Selenium?

Ans. We can use WebDriver, which provides an efficient way to handle these pop-ups using Alert interface. Besides, there are four methods too that we can use –

void dismiss() – The accept() method clicks on the “Cancel” button when the pop-up window appears.

void accept() – The accept() method clicks on the “Ok” button when the pop-up window appears.

String getText() – The getText() method returns the text displayed on the alert box.

void sendKeys(String stringToSend) – The sendKeys() method enters the specified string pattern into the alert box.


// accepting javascript alert

Alert alert = driver.switchTo().alert();


Tell me how can I take a screenshot in Selenium WebDriver?

Ans. You can do that by using the TakeScreenshot function and by using getScreenshotAs() method, you can save the screenshot.

Is it possible to enter a text without using sendKeys()?

Ans. Yes, we can enter/ send text using JavaScriptExecutor, and we don’t need to use sendKeys() method.

What is Junit?

Ans. It is a Java-based unit testing framework introduced by Apache.

What is Object Repository?

Ans. Object Repository refers to a collection of web elements belonging to Application Under Test (AUT) along with their locator values. Object Repository is used to store locators in a centralized location.

How can we create Object Repository in Selenium?

Ans. We can create Object Repository in an excel sheet that can be populated inside the script whenever required.

Does Selenium have any limitations?

Ans. Yes, it has.

– It supports testing of only web-based applications

– Can not test mobile applications

– Selenium can’t test Captcha and Barcode readers

– It helps to generate reports using third-party tools like TestNG or JUnit

– No ready vendor support

– User must possess programming language knowledge

Automation Standards for Selenium Coding I wish I knew Earlier

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Selenium Automation Coding Standards document Download PDF Version at the end of this article

1. Introduction – selenium coding automation standards document

This document describes a collection of standards, conventions and guidelines for designing and developing framework/scripts for java code in selenium automation. This document will help to ensure consistency across the code, resulting in increased usability and maintainability of the developed code.

1.     Why selenium coding standards are so important?

Coding standards for Java are important because they lead to greater consistency within the code of all developers. Consistency leads to the code that is easier to understand, which in turn results in a code, which is easier to develop and maintain. Code that is difficult to understand and maintain runs the risk of being scrapped and rewritten.

2.     Overview – selenium coding standards document

This document provides guidelines for:

  • Naming standards
  • Comment standards
  • Functions/Methods standards
  • Indentations
  • Automation scripts
  • General guidelines
    • 2. Standards for Variables

3.     Naming Variables

  1. Variable names should be defined with data type abbreviation followed by actual variable name (English descriptors that accurately describe the variable/field/class/interface)


  • int intCount
  • String strMethodName
  • float ftvariableName
  • decimal decVariableName
  • object objObjectName
  • Domain specific terminologies should be used.
  • If the users of the system refer to their clients as Customer, then the term Customer for the class should be used, not client.
  • Mixed case should be used to make names readable.
  • Abbreviations should be used sparingly, but if it is used then it should be used intelligently and should be documented

For example, to use a short form for the word “number”, choose one of nbr, no or num.

  • Long names (<15 characters is a good tradeoff) should be avoided.
  • Names that are similar or differ only in case should be avoided.

Also, Read Selenium Interview Questions & Answers

4.     Naming Exception Objects

The letter ‘e’ should be used for a generic exception object name.

5.     Declaring and Documenting Local variables

  1. One local variable per line of code should be used.
  2. Local variable should be declared with an end line comment.
  3. Declare all local variables before the functional block or in the beginning of the script.
  4. Whenever a local variable is used for more than one reason, it effectively decreases its cohesion, making it difficult to understand. It also increases the chances of introducing bugs into the code from unexpected side effects of previous values of a local variable from earlier in the code.

Note: Reusing local variables is more efficient because less memory needs to be allocated, but reusing local variables decreases the maintainability of code and makes it more fragile.

6.     Standards for Parameters (Arguments) to Member Functions

Function parameters should be named following the exact same conventions as for local variable. Example:

If Account has an attribute called balance and you needed to pass a parameter representing a new value for it, the parameter would be called accountBalance.

7.     Naming Classes

Class names should be nouns, in mixed case with the first letter of each internal word

capitalized. Try to keep your class names simple and descriptive. Use whole words -avoid acronyms and abbreviations.

Example: class ReadExcelFile { ..}

8.     Naming Interfaces

Interface names should be capitalized like class names. Example: interface RegesterDelegate;

interface Storing;

9.     Naming Methods

Methods should be verbs, in mixed case with the first letter lowercase, with the first letter of each internal word capitalized.


ResultSet getData(String query)

void initiateExcelConnection(String fileName)

10. Naming Constants

The names of the variables constants should be all uppercase with words separated by underscores (“_”).


int MIN_WIDTH = 4; int MAX_WIDTH = 5;

3.Comment Standards

  1. Comments should be added to increase the clarity of code.
  2. Document something why it is done not just what it is done.
  3. Every change to the framework/scripts should be documented in modification history. A modification history should contain the following:
  • Name of the person who changed the code:
    • Date of change:
    • Version:
    • Changed function/event:
    • Change description:

Note: Successful build should be ensured after checking in the scripts/changes into repository.

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11.  Implementation of Comment Formats

Programs can have four styles of implementation of comments: block, single-line, trailing and end-of-line.

  • 3.1.  Block Comments
  • Block comments are used to provide descriptions of files, methods, data structures and algorithms.
  • Block comments should be used at the beginning of each file and before each method. They can also be used in other places, such as within methods.
  • Block comments inside a function or method should be indented to the same level as the code they describe.
  • A block comment should be preceded by a blank line to set it apart from the rest of the code.
  • Block comments have an asterisk “*” at the beginning of each line except the first. Example:


* Here is the block comment.

software testing interview*/

  • 3.2.  Single-Line Comments
  • Short comments can appear on a single line indented to the level of the code that follows. If a comment can’t be

written in a single line, it should follow the block comment format.

  • A single-line comment should be preceded by a blank line. Here’s an example

of a single-line comment in Java:

if (condition)


/* Handle the condition. */


  • 3.3.  Trailing Comments
  • Very short comments can appear on the same line as the code they describe, but should be shifted far enough to separate them from the statements. If more than one short comment appears in a chunk of code, they should all be indented to the same tab setting.
  • Avoid the assembly language style of commenting every line of executable code with a trailing comment.

Here’s an example of a trailing comment in Java code (also see “Documentation Comments”

if (a == 2)


return TRUE; /* special case */




return isprime(a); /* works only for odd a */


  • 3.4.  End-Of-Line Comments

The // comment delimiter begins a comment that continues to the newline. It can comment out a complete line or only a partial line.


// Page Factory Initialization

ProductsLib productsTestDataObject = new ProductsLib())

12.  Framework Code Header Comments

The framework code header should contain the following:

  • The copyright and proprietary information
  • Name of the framework code
  • Author of the code
  • Name of the reviewer
  • Date of creation
  • Version number



  • Project Name : Your Company Automation Framework
  • Author : Your Company QA
  • Version : V1.0
  • Reviewed By : Manager 1
  • Date of Creation : April 13, 2013
  • Modification History :
  • Date of change : 13-Sep-09
  • Version : V1.1
  • changed function : def func1
  • change description :
  • Modified By : Tester 1


  • 4. Functions/Methods

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13.  Function Name

Member functions should be named using a full English description, using mixed case with the first letter of any non- initial word capitalized. The first word of the member function should be a verb.


openAccount() printMailingList() save()


14.  Naming Accessor Member Functions

  • 4.1.  Getters:

Getters refer to member functions that return the value of a field/attribute/property of an object.

  • Use prefix “get” to the name of the field/attribute/property if the field in not Boolean.
  • Use prefix “is” to the name of the field / attribute / property if the field is Boolean.
  • A viable alternative is to use the prefix ‘has’ or ‘can’ instead of ‘is’ for boolean getters.


getFirstName() isPersistent()

  • 4.2.  Setters:

Setters refer to member functions that modify the values of a field. Use prefix ‘set’ to the name of the field.



  • 4.3.  Constructors:

In Java, constructor is a member function that performs any necessary initialization when an object is created. Constructors are always given the same name as their class name.


Customer() SavingsAccount()

15.  Function Header

Function header should contain following detail as mentioned in the below example:



  • @Project Name : TACOE – Selenium Framework.
  • @Function Name : getValuesFromExcel()
  • @Description : This function is used to fetch data from excel sheet.
  • @param : fileName – Name of the workbook from which the test data
  • needs to be fetched.
  • @param : sheetName – Name of the workbook from which the test data
  • needs to be fetched.
  • @Return : Resultset
  • @Date : June 2018
  • @Author : Tester Name



Note: It’s not necessary to document all the factors described above for each and every member function because not all factors are applicable to every member function.

16.  Internal Documentation:

Comments within the member functions:

  • Use C style comments to document out lines of unneeded code.
  • Use single-line comments for business logic.
  • Following should be documented inside the definition:
  • Control Structures:
  • comparison statements and loops
  • Why, as well as what, the code does
  • Local variables
  • Difficult or complex code
  • The processing order If there are statements in the code that must be executed in a defined order.
  • Document the closing braces If there are many control structures one inside another.

17.  Function Complexity

Framework code should be designed and developed with minimal possible loops and conditions for reduced complexity and enhanced maintainability.

Each function should contain max 30 lines of code. If it crosses more than 30 lines, function should be broken in sub modules.

18.  Function Structure

The following tips provide guidance for creating easy-to-read and easy-to-maintain code:

  • Modularize the code for increased reusability and reduced redundancy.
  • Code should be well-indented with tabs. (Tab width should be 4).
  • Values passed and returned to the functions should use simple variables.
  • The use of global variables within the function should be reduced. The scope of the variable should be decided based on the standards.
  • 5. Indentation

Four spaces should be used as the unit of indentation. The exact construction of the indentation (spaces vs. tabs) is unspecified. Tabs must be set exactly every 8 spaces (not 4).

Lines longer than 80 characters should be avoided, since they’re not handled well by many terminals and tools.

Note: Examples for use in documentation should have a shorter line length generally no more than 70 characters. When an expression will not fit on a single line, it should be broken according to the below general principles:

  • Break after a comma.
  • Break before an operator.
  • Prefer higher-level breaks to lower-level breaks.
  • Align the new line with the beginning of the expression at the same level on the previous line.
  • If the above rules lead to confusing code or to code that’s squished up against the right margin, just indent 8 spaces


  • Here are some examples of breaking method calls:

function(longExpression1, longExpression2, longExpression3, longExpression4, longExpression5);

var = function1(longExpression1, function2 (longExpression2, longExpression3));

  • Following are two examples of breaking an arithmetic expression. The first is preferred, since the break occurs outside the parenthesized expression, which is at a higher level.

longName1 = longName2 * (longName3 + longName4 – longName5)

+ 4 * longname6; // PREFER

longName1 = longName2 * (longName3 + longName4

– longName5) + 4 * longname6; // AVOID

  • Following is the example of indenting method declarations. The first is the conventional case. The second would shift the second and third lines to the far right if it used conventional indentation, so instead it indents only 8 spaces.


someMethod(int anArg, Object anotherArg, String yetAnotherArg, Object andStillAnother) {


  • Line wrapping for if statements should generally use the 8-space rule, since conventional (4 space) indentation makes seeing the body difficult. For example:

if ((condition1 && condition2) || (condition3 && condition4)

||!(condition5 && condition6)) { doSomethingAboutIt();


  • Here are three acceptable ways to format ternary expressions:

alpha = (aLongBooleanExpression) ? beta: gamma; alpha = (aLongBooleanExpression) ? beta

: gamma;

alpha = (aLongBooleanExpression)

? beta

: gamma;

  • 6. Automation Scripts

Folder/package structure should be created based on the functionality/purpose of the scripts/files present in the respective folder.


  • Generic.fetchdata: This package should contain all the java files related to fetching test data from the excel sheet for data driven test automation framework.
  • This package should contain all java files related to global functionalities like,,, UtilFunctions (Re-usable functions),, etc.


  •>This java file is used to maintain constant value for the overall projects.
  • -> This java file should contain all the methods to get/create current time stamps.
  • -> This java file should contain all methods to generate the log files and capture test results.
  • ->This java file should contain all methods to read and fetch test data from excel sheet.
  • ->This java file should contain all methods which are common across the application.
  • -> This java file should contain functions definitions required to connect database.

·        PageFactory : This package should consists of all java files specific to the web element’s Ids present in the web page and domain specific functions.

·        Example:
  • TestData : This package should consists of all the excel sheet containing the test data and environment specific data. The test data for each module should be placed in separate excel document.


  • TestData.xls
  • Environmnet.xls

Header names in the excelsheet should start uppercase.

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TestId, Description, Enabled, UserId, Password, etc.

  • TestResult: This folder should contain all the log files which is resultant of test case execution. The log files should be named as per the time of execution which makes the tracking of results easier. The Test results should be maintained in the form of log files which are generated runtime during every execution. These log files should be saved as text documents for easy understanding. The messages provided within the scripts should be saved in the log files.

The naming convention followed for the log folders is mm-dd-yyyy_hh_mm_ss. Each log folder should contain various log files based on the <testcasename>.log

Example: RC_T1_AdminTools_001_PASS.log.

·        TestScripts: This package consists of the test scripts for all module and setup script for the test execution. Testscripts names should be decided based on the functionality and the testscript should contain group of test cases related to that functionality.

Example: -> This java file should contain group of methods(testcases) as mentioned below:

public void RC_T1_UsageTypes_001_CreateUsageTypes() public void RC_T1_UsageTypes_004_EditUsageTypes() public void RC_T1_UsageTypes_006_SearchUsageTypeGrid()

  • 7. General Guidelines
  • An ampersand (&) for concatenating strings should be used instead of ‘+’ symbol.
  • Objects should be set to nothing for cleaning the memory.
  • Only one variable should be declared in a line and all variable should be initialized as null/0/’ ’ while declaring them.
  • There should not be more than 80 characters per line.
  • The code should be properly indented.
  • Variables should be declared using appropriate data types.
  • Success/ failure can be logged inside sub-methods, instead of re-writing in all called places.
  • Finite number of loops should be defined when we use “While” loops.
  • If the first line of the method is failed, then control should move to catch block. It should not try executing second line of the method.
  • Try-Catch-Finally blocks should be used for all methods.
  • If similar kind of logic is used in more than one place, then reusable components should be used. Redundancy should be avoided.
  • Numerical constants (literals) should not be coded directly, except for -1, 0, and 1, which can appear in a for loop as counter values.

Selenium Automation Coding Standards document Download PDF Version Here

selenium ide, cross browser testing, operating systems, ci cd, test suite, browser driver, running tests

Frequently Asked Questions on Selenium Webdriver

Q. What is Latest version of Selenium Webdriver?

Ans: Selenium 4

Q. What is the difference between Selenium and Selenium WebDriver?

Ans: WebDriver is faster than Selenium RC because of its simpler architecture. WebDriver directly talks to the browser while Selenium RC needs the help of the RC Server in order to do so. WebDriver’s API is more concise than Selenium RC’s. WebDriver can support HtmlUnit while Selenium RC cannot

Q. Is Selenium WebDriver a framework?

Ans: Selenium is a framework used to test web applications. A framework defines rules that are followed to achieve particular results. In selenium, there are many types of frameworks including linear scripting, modular testing, and data-driven.

Q. What is WebDriver interface or class?

Ans: WebDriver is a public interface, we just define a reference variable(driver) whose type is interface. Now any object we assign to it must be a instance of a class (fireFoxDriver)that implement the interface.

Q. Is Selenium a tool or API?

Ans: Selenium is an open-source tool that automates web browsers. It provides a single interface that lets you write test scripts in programming languages like Ruby, Java, NodeJS, PHP, Perl, Python, and C#, among others.

Q. What is WebElement?

Ans: A WebElement, in this case, a Selenium WebElement is essentially an HTML element on a website. HTML documents consist of HTML elements. Each HTML element consists of a start tag and an end tag. The content lies between the tags.

What is the WebDriver?

WebDriver is a remote control interface that enables introspection and control of user agents. It provides a platform- and language-neutral wire protocol as a way for out-of-process programs to remotely instruct the behavior of web browsers.

Top 35 QA Manager/Test Lead Interview Questions and Answers

software testing interview

Are you preparing for a Test Lead or QA Manager interview? Preparing for a job interview

requires you to be ready to answer the basic as well as the tricky interview questions that a

hiring manager could ask. If you are wondering about the type of QA Manager/Test Lead

interview questions that could be asked in your next interview, then this post is going to help


As a Test Lead, you are expected to show good leadership qualities along with proficiency in the

technical areas of work. As a Quality Manager, you need to ensure that the quality of products,

or services, or processes of an organization are properly maintained and to meet the

customer’s requirements. If you are planning to get ready for the big job interview, then here

are some of the commonly-asked QA Manager/Test Lead interview questions covering both

basic and advanced concepts:

Q1. What do you expect out of this role?

Ans. This question measures your compatibility with the role. As you have applied for the role,

you should have a good understanding of the major responsibilities associated with it and what

you expect from it in the future.

Q2. Did you handle a team of test engineers or QA professionals in your earlier role?

Ans. As you are interviewing for a test lead position it is evident that you have some amount of

experience in handling a team or have similar experiences. You need to give a detail on how

you coordinated with your team members and clients to deliver successful projects.

Q3. What do you think of test leads writing test cases?

Ans. The right answer is to say that you feel that the test lead should write test cases like any

other member of the team.

Q4. How do you set your team’s objectives?

Ans. If you prefer to set individual objectives for each member of the team, mention that you

set it according to the knowledge and experience levels. This is how we can handle the project

more efficiently as a team.

Q5. How familiar are you with the industry-standard testing practices?

Ans. Explain all the proper practices that you follow in your existing organization and how will

you handle it similarly for the organization that you are interviewing for.

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Q6. What are the ways you ensure that the team members receive proper training?

Ans. Get feedback from all the team members on their strengths and weaknesses to make a

note of what type of training is necessary for the team. Also, new members who join the team

should be trained on time so as to be inducted as quickly as possible.

Q7. What will be your criteria for hiring team members?

Ans. The criteria for hiring team members are

1) his/her technical strength is as per project


2) his/her attitude towards the profile he will be hiring for, and 3) will he/she be

a good fit with the rest of the team members?

Q8. Which testing tools are you familiar with?

Ans. As a test lead, you should be familiar with some of the most popular testing tools. You

need to explain how you use and what are its advantages as per the project requirements, cost

of using the tool, and ease of use.

Q9. Are you familiar with automation and what do you think of it?

Ans. Automation is becoming an important part of software testing nowadays and you can get

away without having any knowledge of it. You should be well-prepared for this question and

make it a positive answer as automation is going to be the future.

Q10. Do you know what Requirement Traceability Matrix is? What are its uses?

Ans. The Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM) is a document that links requirements to test

cases. Its uses are

1) to ensure that all the application requirements are tested in the

verification process and

2) to check test coverage.

Q11. What is a Test Plan?

Ans. A Test Plan is a document detailing the objectives, resources, and processes for a specific

test and contains a detailed understanding of the eventual workflow.

Q12. Name the different types of Test Plans?

Ans. There are three types of Test Plans:

1) Master Test Plan,

2) Testing Level Specific Test Plan

3) Testing Type Specific Test Plan.

Q13. What are the risks that should be avoided for a testing project?

Ans. One should avoid the following risks during a testing project: 1) human resource risk

(resource crunch), 2) project schedule risk (missed deadlines), 3) strategy risk (exceeding

allocated budgets) and 4) project definition risk.

Q14. What are the good practices that you follow?

Ans. Some of the good practices for a successful project are proper documentation process,

high standards of reviewing, recognition to outstanding performers, focusing on team building,

and making sure there is a continuous scope of learning.

Q15. Have you been involved in test estimation? What are the techniques that you use?

Ans. If yes, explain how you come with the test estimation scenarios and the techniques that

you follow to improve the processes over time.

Q16. What are your key achievements in your current organization?

Ans. Have you completed a project well before the deadline or have you managed a difficult

project with great efficiency? Mention all your achievements no matter how insignificant you

think it is.

Q17. What is the difference between Agile and Scrum? Which one do you prefer?

Ans. Scrum is actually a type of Agile framework but does not provide detailed instructions on

what needs to be done; rather most of it is dependent on the team. The Agile methodology

supports incremental and iterative work cadences known as Sprints.

If you prefer that there is a leader who maintains the direction by assigning tasks then Agile is

perfect otherwise Scrum provides the advantage of adjusting the project’s direction based on

completed work.

Q18. What is Configuration Management?

Ans. Configuration Management covers the processes used to coordinate, control, and track

test artifacts.

Q19. What are the informal reviews? Do you document informal reviews?

Ans. An informal review is a process of checking defects without running the code. No, informal

reviews do not require documentation.

Q20. What is a three-point estimation?

Ans. In a three-point estimation, three different values are calculated based on previous

experience. These are 1) the best-case estimate, 2) the most likely estimate and 3) the worst-

case estimate.

Q21. What are the key challenges of software testing?

Ans. Some of the key challenges of software testing are:

– Testing the entire application: It is difficult to test the entire application as there are

many test combinations. It will lead to a delay in shipping the product if you test all the


– Communication with developers: Developers or testers may not always agree with each

other for some points.

– Regression testing: Managing the changes in current functionality and previous working

functionality checks could be difficult.

– Time constraint: You may have multiple tasks related to quality that need to be

completed within a specified time.

– Priority: With time constraints, it sometimes becomes difficult for the testers to decide

which test to execute first.

Some other challenges include deciding on the right process and identifying the non-testable


Q22. What steps are followed to create a test script?

Ans. Below are the steps to create a test script:

1. Understand the Application under test by reading the requirements related documents

other references, such as the previous version of the application.

2. Make a list of the areas to test for the AUT. In this step, you will identify ‘What’ to test.

3. Determine ‘How’ to test them. Write various steps on how to test a particular feature,

determine the data that will be entered, and the expected outcome.

Q23. Why testing is necessary?

Ans. Testing is an important step in the software cycle as it helps to identify defects, mistakes,

and bugs before the delivery to the client. Testing ensures the quality of the software and

produces a more cost-efficient end-product.

Q24. What do you mean by PDCA Cycle?

Ans. PDCA stands for Plan Do Check Act. The PDCA Cycle is a 4-stage problem-solving technique

for conducting a quality check. It focuses on the continuous improvement of processes and

products. In simple terms, it is a continuous loop of planning, doing, checking, and acting that is

useful for testing improvement measures.

Q25. What are the key elements in a Bug Report?

Ans. A good bug report must be concise and specific and should have:

– Title

– Unique and clearly specified bug number/name

– Steps to reproduce the bug

– A summary describing the defect and the observed failure

– A description that explaining the steps to follow to reproduce the defect and the

expected outcome.

– Date and time when the defect occurred or reported

– Bug Priority / Severity

– Platform & Version

– Attachment/evidence of the failure to help the reviewer to understand the defect better

Q26. What is the difference between Retesting And Regression Testing?

Ans. The differences between Retesting And Regression Testing are:

Retesting Regression Testing

It is planned testing. It is generic testing.

Retesting focuses on testing a specific feature

of the software.

Regression Testing focuses on testing a

general area of the software.

Retesting is done to confirm the test cases that

failed in the final execution. It is carried out to

check that the defects are fixed.

Regression Testing is done for testing

software which was working, but might

not be working now due to updates.

It is done based on the Defect fixes.

It ensures that new code changes should

not adversely impact the existing


Test cases cannot be automated for Retesting.

Automation can be done for regression


It is carried out only for failed test cases. It is carried out for passed test cases.

The Priority of re-testing is higher than

regression testing, thus it is done before

regression testing.

It can be done parallel with Re-testing.

Q27. What Is Exploratory Testing?

Ans. Often described as simultaneous learning, test design, and test execution, Exploratory

Testing is an approach that involves testing of software without any specific plans or schedules.

It is carried out when there an early iteration is needed. It requires minimum planning and

maximum test execution. During software testing, the tester discovers and learns novel things

that when combined with experience and creativity produce new good tests to run.

Q28. What are the severity and priority of a defect?

Ans. Defect Severity means how adversely the defect has impacted the functionality of an


Defect Priority refers to the order in which the defects will be fixed. It is the urgency of the

defect from the business point of view. If the impact of the bug will be higher on the business,

then a higher priority will be assigned to it. Bugs could be under different priority and severity


– High Priority and High Severity

– High Priority and Low Severity

– Low Priority and Low Severity

– Low Priority and High Severity

Q29. How would you choose a Testing tool for your project?

Ans. The steps to select the right testing tool for a project are:

1. Identify and understand the requirement for the project

2. Evaluate the tools and vendors that meet the requirements

3. Consider budget and estimate cost and benefit

4. Make the final decision

Q30. Explain the difference between Smoke testing and Sanity Testing.

Ans. The differences between Smoke testing and Sanity Testing are:

Smoke Testing Sanity Testing

The objective of Smoke Testing is to confirm that

the critical functionalities of the program are

working properly.

It verifies and validates the conformity of

the new functionalities in the existing


It ascertains the stability of the system. Sanity Testing ascertains the rationality

of the system.

This testing is performed on initial builds.

This testing is performed on stable


Smoke testing is carried out by the developers or


Testers carry out Sanity Testing.

It is documented or scripted. Usually, it is not documented or scripted.

Smoke testing is a part of basic testing.

Sanity Testing is a part of regression


It is usually carried out whenever there is a new


It is a planned activity that is carried out

when there is not enough time for in-

depth testing.

Q31. What do you think is the best approach to start QA in a project?

Ans. The best approach to start QA is from the beginning of the project. This will help the team

to do proper planning of the processes that need to be followed. It will ensure that the end-

product meets the customer’s quality expectations. QA also helps in starting communication

between different teams.

Q32. What soft/people skills should a Test Lead/QA Manager have?

Ans. Besides technical expertise, Test Leads and QA managers must work on their ability to

create and work with a creative test team where each member is equally valuable for the

organization. This would require them to have the following soft skills:

– Effective communication skills

– Ability to solve problems effectively

– Adaptable and influential

– Strong negotiation and conflict resolution skills

– Ability to motivate team members

– Team Player

Q33. What are the different ways to manage or mitigate risks in a Test Project?

Ans. The following are the four ways to manage or mitigate the risk:

– Avoidance: avoid the risk factor that is involved

– Acceptance & Sharing: Accept the risk and develop a planned budget for the risks

involved and collaborate with others to share responsibility

– Reduction: Develop a mitigation plan to decrease the impact of risks

– Risk transfer: Transfer the risk to another resource or party

Q34. How can you determine the quality of the test execution?

Ans. You can determine the quality of test execution by:

– Defect rejection ratio: (No. of defects rejected/ total no. of defects raised) X 100

– Defect leakage ratio: (No. of defect missed/total defects of software) X 100

A smaller value of DRR and DLR indicates a better quality of test execution.

Q35. What are the best practices for test estimation?

Ans. The following are some of the best practices for test estimation:

– Add reasonable buffer time: It can help you to deal with a delay caused due to

unexpected reasons.

– Account resource planning in estimation: Make realistic estimation after considering the

important factors, like the absence of a human resource.

– Use the past experience reference: It will help you to prepare good estimates and avoid

all the possible obstacles that are most likely to happen.

– Stick to your estimate: Your estimation may go wrong also. Therefore, you should re-

check and make modifications when needed.