Test Case In Software Testing

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Test Case In Software Testing: This article will explain what is Test Case including its Characteristics, Types, Test Cases For Pen, Test Scenario vs Test Case, its Template, How to write in excel sheet, Test Case design technique, Test case management tool and more. It will also show you Example For Login Page to help you understand it.

A test case is a detailed set of instructions and conditions that are used to test how a software application works and how it acts. It gives the tester a step-by-step plan for running the test and figuring out if the software meets the requirements and works the way it should.

Test cases are an important part of the software development life cycle because they help find problems, bugs, or differences between what was expected and what happened. By making and running test cases, developers and testers can make sure that the software is correct, reliable, and of high quality.

Also, Check QA Test Cases Template PDF Free Download

Define Test Case In Software Testing

In this section we will see indetail what is Test Case.

A test case is a set of inputs or conditions and the expected results that are used to make sure that a certain part or function of a software application works as it should.

Test cases are made to check how the software works in different situations and to find any bugs or problems that might be there.

Define Test Case In Software Testing

A test case includes the following components:

  1. Test Case ID: A unique identifier for the test case for easy reference and management.
  2. Test Case Name: A descriptive name that explains the purpose or objective of the test case.
  3. Test Description: A brief explanation of what the test case aims to verify or test.
  4. Test Steps: A series of step-by-step instructions outlining the actions that the tester needs to perform to execute the test.
  5. Test Data: The specific data or input values required to run the test case.
  6. Expected Result: The anticipated outcome or behavior of the software when the test is executed successfully.
  7. Actual Result: The actual outcome observed when the test case is executed.
  8. Pass/Fail Status: Indicates whether the test case passed or failed based on the comparison between the expected and actual results.

Also, Read Defect Life Cycle In Software Testing

Test Case Example For Login Page

Once we get to know what is Test Case Now lets see its example For login page for better understand.

Test Case ID: TC001

Test Case Name: Login Page – Valid Credentials

Test Description: Verify that a user can successfully login using valid credentials.

Test Steps:

  • Open the web browser and navigate to the login page.
  • Enter a valid username into the “Username” field.
  • Enter a valid password into the “Password” field.
  • Click on the “Login” button.
  • Wait for the system to process the login request.

Test Data:

  • Valid Username: example_user123
  • Valid Password: 1Password@secure

Expected Result:

  • The user should be redirected to the home/dashboard page.
  • The user should see a welcome message or their username displayed on the page.
  • The “Logout” button should be visible on the home/dashboard page.

Actual Result:

  • Verify that the user is redirected to the home/dashboard page.
  • Verify that the welcome message or the username is displayed correctly.
  • Verify that the “Logout” button is visible on the home/dashboard page.

Pass/Fail Status:

  • 12. If all the verification points pass, mark the test case as “Pass.
  • If any of the verification points fail, mark the test case as “Fail” and report the issue.

Also, Read What Is Scrum In Software Engineering

Characteristics Of Good Test Case In Testing

By looking Test case example for login page i hope you understand that how to write test cases. now we will see Characteristics Of Test Case.

  • Clarity and Understandability
  • Relevance to Requirements
  • Completeness
  • Independence and Isolation
  • Traceability
  • Reproducibility
  • Measurable Pass/Fail Criteria
  • Feasibility
  • Maintainability
  • Efficiency
  • Non-Redundancy
  • Consistency
  • Validation of Negative Scenarios
Characteristics Of Good Test Case In Testing

Types Of Test Cases

Now will see the various kinds of test cases are as follows:

  1. Unit Test Cases
  2. Integration Test Cases
  3. Functional Test Cases
  4. GUI Test Cases
  5. Regression Test Cases
  6. Performance Test Cases
  7. Security Test Cases
  8. Usability Test Cases
  9. Compatibility Test Cases
  10. Acceptance Test Cases
  11. Smoke Test Cases
  12. Sanity Test Cases
  13. Exploratory Test Cases
  14. Boundary Test Cases
  15. Error Handling Test Cases
Types Of Test Cases

Test Cases For Pen

we have seen characteristics and types of test case. now we will see how to write Test Cases For Pen.

  1. Verify that the pen writes smoothly on different types of paper.
  2. Check that the pen has an appropriate grip for comfortable writing.
  3. Ensure that the pen’s cap fits securely and prevents ink leakage.
  4. Verify that the pen’s ink is of the correct color as indicated on the packaging.
  5. Test the pen’s click mechanism (if applicable) to ensure it works smoothly.
  6. Check that the pen can write with continuous ink flow without skipping.
  7. Verify that the pen’s ink dries quickly to prevent smudging.
  8. Test the durability of the pen’s tip by writing for an extended period.
  9. Verify that the pen works at various angles (e.g., horizontal, vertical).
  10. Test the pen on different surfaces (e.g., plain paper, glossy paper) to ensure consistent writing quality.
  11. Check the pen’s ink level or capacity to ensure it lasts as specified.
  12. Test the pen’s ability to write on rough or uneven surfaces.
  13. Verify that the pen’s color remains consistent throughout its use.
  14. Check the pen’s performance in extreme temperatures (hot and cold).
  15. Test the pen’s compatibility with different pen holders or accessories (if applicable).
  16. Verify that the pen does not leak or bleed through the paper excessively.
  17. Test the pen’s performance after leaving it idle for a certain period.
  18. Check the pen’s resistance to smearing or smudging when used with highlighters or markers.
  19. Test the pen’s ability to start writing after being stored for an extended time.
  20. Verify that the pen is easy to open and replace ink refills (if applicable).
Test Cases For Pen

Difference Between Test Scenario And Test Case In Testing

Here’s the difference between test scenarios and test cases Click here

Difference Between Test Scenario And Test Case In Testing

Test Case Template

Test cases are consistently documented using a test case template, which is a structured format. It guarantees the accurate and thorough recording of all test-related data. There are many different test case templates available, but this one is frequently used:

Test Case ID: [Unique identifier for the test case]
Test Case Name: [Descriptive name for the test case]

Test Objective: [Briefly state the purpose or objective of the test]

Test Environment: [Specify the test environment, e.g., Operating System, Browser, etc.]

Preconditions: [List any prerequisites or conditions required for executing the test]

Test Steps:

  1. [Step 1: Describe the action to be performed]
  2. [Step 2: Describe the action to be performed]
  3. [Step 3: Describe the action to be performed]

Test Data:
[Provide any specific test data or input values required for the test]

Expected Result:
[Describe the expected outcome or behavior after executing the test steps]

Actual Result:
[To be filled in during test execution, describing the actual outcome]

Pass/Fail Criteria:
[Specify the conditions to determine whether the test case is passed or failed]

Test Priority: [Low/Medium/High, based on the criticality of the test case]

Test Status: [Not Run/Pass/Fail/Bug, update during test execution]

Test Notes: [Any additional notes, observations, or comments about the test]

Attachments: [Attach any relevant documents, screenshots, or files]

How To Write Test Cases In Excel Sheet

Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to write test cases in an Excel sheet:

Step 1: Open Excel and create a new workbook.

Step 2: Create a sheet for test case management. You can name it “Test Cases” or any other relevant title.

Step 3: Set up the column headers. The typical columns for test cases include:

  • Test Case ID: A unique identifier for each test case.
  • Test Case Name: A descriptive name or title for the test case.
  • Test Objective: Briefly describe the purpose or objective of the test case.
  • Test Steps: List the step-by-step instructions for executing the test.
  • Test Data: Specify the required test data or input values for each step.
  • Expected Result: Describe the expected outcome after executing each step.
  • Actual Result: To be filled in during test execution, describing the actual outcome.
  • Pass/Fail: Mark the test result as Pass or Fail based on the comparison of the expected and actual results.
  • Notes: Add any additional notes or comments related to the test case.

Step 4: Begin writing the test cases row by row. Each row represents an individual test case, and each column contains the respective details.

Step 5: Add more test cases as needed. You can keep adding rows to the sheet for new test cases.

Step 6: Save your Excel sheet to your desired location for easy access and future reference.

Tips for writing test cases in Excel:

  • Keep the test case names clear and descriptive.
  • Use concise and unambiguous language in the test steps and expected results.
  • Utilize separate rows for each test case to maintain clarity and ease of management.
  • Use cell formatting, such as colors, for better visibility and organization.
  • Consider adding filters to the columns, allowing you to sort and filter the data as needed.
  • Regularly update the actual results column during test execution to keep track of the progress.
How To Write Test Cases In Excel Sheet

Test Case Design Techniques

Test case design techniques are methodical approaches used in software testing to create test cases that effectively validate a software application’s functionality.

These techniques assist testers in ensuring maximum test coverage while reducing the number of unnecessary or redundant test cases. Testing teams can improve software quality and user satisfaction by finding bugs and security flaws earlier in the development cycle by using a variety of design techniques.

  1. Equivalence Partitioning: This method partitions the input data into classes or partitions on the assumption that the software’s behaviour is uniform within each class. As a result, fewer test cases are required because test cases are designed to cover each partition.
  2. Boundary Value Analysis: This method focuses on evaluating input values at the limits of specified intervals or categories. This strategy seeks to find problems at the borders of allowable and nonallowable ranges because boundary values frequently result in additional flaws.
  3. Decision Table Testing: Decision tables tabulate complex business logic, making it simpler to spot conditions and responses. Based on the various combinations, test cases are developed.
  4. State Transition Testing: This technique is used for systems with multiple states to ensure that the software behaves as expected during state changes.
  5. Use Case Testing: In order to ensure that the software meets user requirements and functions as intended in practical situations, test cases are derived from use cases or user stories.
  6. Error Guessing: Testers make educated guesses about potential problems based on their own experience and intuition.
  7. Combinatorial Testing (Pairwise Testing): This method focuses on testing all possible combinations of input parameters, maximising test coverage while minimising the number of test cases.
  8. Cause-Effect Graphing: It is a visual representation of the causal connections between causes and effects. Based on the graph, test cases are created to simulate every possible outcome.
  9. Exploratory Testing: Testers explore the software without predefined test cases, allowing them to find bugs, usability problems, and other unexpected behaviours.
  10. Risk-Based Testing: prioritises test cases based on identified risks, ensuring that high-risk areas receive more testing attention.
  11. Model-Based Testing: Test cases are derived from models that represent the behaviour or requirements of the system.
  12. Domain Testing: This method focuses on testing particular input domains, such as valid and invalid data.
Test Case Design Techniques

Test Case Management Tools

The creation, organisation, execution, and reporting of test cases during the software testing process are made easier by test case management tools, which are pieces of software.

Test Case Management Tools

These tools give testing teams a central place to manage test cases, keep tabs on testing progress, and work well together. There are a number of test case management tools on the market. Here are some well-known ones:

  • TestRail
  • HP ALM (Application Lifecycle Management)
  • Jira
  • Zephyr
  • TestLink
  • qTest
  • Xray
  • TestLodge
  • PractiTest
  • Kualitee
  • Testuff
  • SpiraTest
  • TestPad
  • TestCollab
  • TestMonitor
  • Testpad
  • TestRail
  • Zoho Test Management
  • Helix RM
  • ReQtest

Test Case Video Link

Final Words

So today we learnt What Is Test Case In Software Testing, including its Characteristics, Types, Test Cases For Pen, Test Scenario vs Test Case, its Template, How to write in excel sheet, Test Case design technique, Test case management tool and more. It will also show you Example For Login Page to help you understand it.

Frequently Asked Questions

Which process helps in improving the quality of a test case

Test management is a good way to improve the software testing process and deliver high-quality software products. Test Management is useful not only for automating testing, but also for testing that is done by hand. Organization of the test: Making the test team and assigning tasks.

What is use case and test case?

A use case is a set of steps that show how a system works to do a certain task. It is shown as a diagram. Test Case is a document that lists a set of actions to be done on the application being tested to make sure it works as expected.

Why are test cases used?

The goal of a test case is to make sure that different parts of a system work as expected and that the system meets all relevant standards, guidelines, and customer requirements.

How do test cases work?

Test cases show how to test a system, software, or application. A test case is a single set of steps or instructions for a tester to follow to test a certain part of how a product or app works. If the test fails, it could mean that there is a bug in the software that the organisation can fix.

When a test case fails?

Most test cases fail because of problems with the server or network, an application that doesn’t work or doesn’t pass validation, or even problems with the scripting. When things go wrong, you have to deal with test case management and run the tests again to get the results you want.

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I'm Priyanka. I have good knowledge of Software Testing. with this blog, by sharing Software Testing knowledge I'm contributing to our Software Testing community. and trying to connect to all the software testers worldwide with this blog.

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