Boundary Value Analysis In Software Testing: This article will explain about Boundary Value Analysis including its Equivalence Class Testing, belongs to which testing method, Boundary value analysis vs equivalence partitioning, its testing method, why does it provide good test case, using selenium, its advantages and disadvantages and more. It will also show you Example to help you understand it.
BVA focuses on testing the software application with these critical boundary values to make sure it handles them correctly and gives accurate results.
By looking at values that are just inside and just outside the boundaries, testers can find problems with how data is handled, how calculations are done, and how the system acts. This method is especially useful when the software has limits or restrictions on the amount of data that can be used.
“Boundary Value Analysis is a software testing technique that focuses on testing values at the edges of input domains, where defects are most likely to occur.”
What Is Boundary Value Analysis In Software Testing
Table of Contents
In this section we will see what is BVA in software testing field.
“Testing at the boundaries ensures that the software can handle critical data points effectively, improving the overall quality of the application.”
In software testing, boundary value analysis (BVA) is a testing method used to find bugs at the edges or boundaries of input domains. It involves choosing test cases with data values that are right on the edge of what is considered a valid input range and what is not.
The goal of BVA is to make sure that these critical boundary values are handled correctly by the software and that it gives accurate results. By testing values at the boundaries, testers can find possible bugs that might not be obvious in other test cases. This makes testing the software more effective and efficient.
Boundary Value Analysis Belongs To Which Testing Method
Here we will see BVA belongs to which testing method.
The method of Black Box Testing that Boundary Value Analysis (BVA) belongs to. Black Box Testing is a way to test software in which the software’s internal structure, design, and how it works are not taken into account.
Testers look at how the software works based on its requirements and specifications. They treat the software as if it were a “black box” with inputs and outputs. BVA is a specific method used in the Black Box Testing method to test how software works at the edges of its input domains.
Boundary Value Analysis Vs Equivalence Partitioning
In this section we’ll look at how Boundary Value Analysis is different from Equivalence Partitioning. Click here to know
Equivalence Class Testing
Here we will see what is equivalence class testing.
For example, if a programme accepts numbers from 1 to 1000, it can be split into equivalence classes like:
1 to 1000 is a valid range.
Less than 1 is not an acceptable number.
Incorrect answer: More than 1000
The testers would then choose one example test case from each class to test how the application works for each type of data input.
Overall, Equivalence Class Testing is a useful method for making a set of test cases that are short and strong, while minimising redundancy and maximising efficiency.
Boundary Value Analysis Testing Example
Let’s consider a simple example to illustrate Boundary Value Analysis (BVA) testing for a function that calculates the area of a rectangle:
- The width and height must be positive integers.
- The width and height must not exceed a maximum value of 100.
Boundary values to test:
- Width = 1, Height = 1 (Minimum valid values)
- Width = 100, Height = 100 (Maximum valid values)
- Width = 0, Height = 1 (Invalid value at the lower boundary for width)
- Width = 101, Height = 1 (Invalid value at the upper boundary for width)
- Width = 1, Height = 0 (Invalid value at the lower boundary for height)
- Width = 1, Height = 101 (Invalid value at the upper boundary for height)
- Test with valid values: Width = 1, Height = 1
- Test with valid values: Width = 100, Height = 100
- Test with invalid width (lower boundary): Width = 0, Height = 1
- Test with invalid width (upper boundary): Width = 101, Height = 1
- Test with invalid height (lower boundary): Width = 1, Height = 0
- Test with invalid height (upper boundary): Width = 1, Height = 101
The key boundary values for the input parameters of the calculateRectangleArea function are shown by the test cases above. By testing these specific values, we can make sure that the function handles boundary conditions properly and gives accurate results.
Boundary Value Analysis Testing Method
Boundary Value Analysis (BVA) is a method for testing software that focuses on testing the edges or boundaries of input domains to find bugs and mistakes. The main goal of BVA is to make sure that the software works right at these important points of transition.
The BVA testing method includes choosing test cases with data values that are right on the edge of what is considered valid and what is considered invalid.
By looking at the numbers at the boundaries, testers hope to find problems with how the boundaries are handled, how the data is processed, and how the system acts.
Also, check Abstract Class Interview Questions
The steps involved in Boundary Value Analysis testing method are as follows:
- Identify input parameters: Figure out which of the software’s input parameters have limits or constraints.
- Define boundary values: Find the important boundary values for each input parameter. These are the minimum and maximum limits, as well as the numbers just inside and just outside those limits.
- Select test cases as follows: Pick test cases that are representative and cover the range of numbers for each input parameter. Most of the time, at least three test cases are chosen for each boundary number to make sure the testing is thorough.
- Execute test cases: Run the chosen test cases on the software application and watch what happens.
- Verify results as follows: Compare the real output for each test case with the expected output. Any differences or mistakes are mentioned so that they can be looked into further and fixed.
- Analyse findings: Examine the test results to find possible problems with the system’s behaviour and border handling. These discoveries are written down and sent to the development team so that they can be fixed.
Why Does Boundary Value Analysis Provide Good Test Cases
Boundary Value Analysis (BVA) gives good test cases because it focuses on key points at the edges of input domains, which is where bugs are more likely to happen.
Here are some of the reasons why BVA is good at making useful test cases:
- Maximum Coverage: BVA makes sure that test cases cover the edges of the software, which is where problems are most likely to happen. It tests as much of the input space as possible with as few test cases as possible.
- Defect Detection: BVA looks for errors in the boundary numbers, which can be caused by rounding, truncation, or other problems with how data is handled. By testing these areas, it’s more likely that bugs will be found early on in the creation process.
- Efficiency: Using BVA instead of extensive testing cuts down on the number of test cases needed. It covers the same amount of ground while saving time and energy.
- Confidence in Edge Behaviour: Since BVA tests input values just inside and just outside the boundaries, it makes sure that the software acts properly at these critical points, giving confidence in edge case handling.
- Boundary Sensitivity: At boundary values, many software programmes act in different ways. BVA lets users figure out how sensitive the software is to these boundary conditions.
- Ideal for Constraints: When input values have restrictions, BVA is a great way to check if the programme handles these restrictions correctly.
- Complement to Equivalence Partitioning: BVA adds to Equivalence Partitioning by focusing on individual boundary values within each split, which gives more coverage.
Boundary Value Analysis Using Selenium
BVA can be used to build effective and efficient test cases for Selenium automation testing. Selenium is a popular tool for testing web applications, and BVA can help improve test coverage and find important bugs.
Here’s what you can do with BVA and Selenium:
- Identify Input Fields: Identify the input fields in the web application that have specified boundaries or constraints. These could be text fields, number fields, date fields, etc.
- Define Boundary Values: Determine the critical boundary values for each input field. These values will be the minimum and maximum limits, as well as values just inside and just outside those limits.
- Design Test Cases: Create Selenium test scripts that set each input field to the boundary values identified in step 2. For example, if a field accepts numbers from 1 to 100, you would test with values like 0, 1, 2, 99, 100, and 101.
- Implement Assertions: Add assertions in your Selenium scripts to verify that the application handles the boundary values correctly. Assertions will check if the application behaves as expected when the input is at the boundaries.
- Execute Test Cases: Run the Selenium test suite, which includes the BVA test cases, against the web application.
- Analyze Results: Analyze the test results to identify any failures or unexpected behavior related to boundary handling.
Boundary Value Analysis Is A Form Of Functional Testing
Yes, that statement is correct. BVA is a type of functional testing. Functional testing is a type of software testing that checks to see if the app works the way it was meant to, based on the standards and functions that were set.
BVA is a functional testing method that checks the behaviour of an application at key points by focusing on the edges or boundaries of input domains. It includes choosing test cases with values that are right on the edge of what is considered valid and what is not.
The main goal of BVA is to make sure that the software handles extreme or boundary values properly, since this is often where bugs and mistakes are most likely to happen. By testing at the edges, boundary value analysis (BVA) helps make sure that the software’s functionality matches the expected behaviour. This makes it a key part of functional testing methods.
Boundary Value Analysis Advantages And Disadvantages
In this section we will see advantages And disadvantages of BVA.
- Efficient test coverage
- Detects critical errors
- Saves time and effort
- Helps prioritize testing
- Enhances test quality
Disadvantages of BVA
- Limited scope
- Complex systems may require more cases
- No guarantee of finding all defects
- Dependency on specification accuracy
- Maintenance overhead
So today we learnt Boundary Value Analysis In Software Testing including its Equivalence Class Testing, belongs to which testing method, Boundary value analysis vs equivalence partitioning, its testing method, why does it provide good test case, using selenium, its advantages and disadvantages and more. It will also show you Example to help you understand it.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the objective of boundary value analysis?
The goal of a boundary value analysis is to find problems that could happen because of wrong assumptions about how a system works.
What is one weakness of boundary value analysis?
incorrect identification of equivalence classes leads to incorrect boundary value testing. Applications with open boundaries or applications not having one-dimensional boundaries are not suitable for this technique.
What is 2 point boundary value problem?
The “standard” two-point boundary value problem is as follows: We want the answer to a set of N coupled first-order ordinary differential equations with n1 boundary conditions at the starting point x1 and n2 = N n1 boundary conditions at the end point x2.
What is an invalid boundary value?
The maximum and minimum values of each partition are known as the partition’s boundary values. Note: A valid boundary value is a valid boundary value for a valid partition. A boundary value for an invalid partition is an invalid boundary value.